Teachers have a clear auditory image of the piece that guides their judgments about the music. These teachers convey clear ideas about how technical demands should be executed to produce appropriate stylistic character and musical interpretation. There is little hesitation in their speech, which suggests that they have in their minds vivid auditory images of the pieces they teach. They seem to know exactly what they expect to hear when students perform. Their technical and musical judgments are made based on historical and theoretical knowledge and on direct performance experience. When lessons deal with repertoire teachers have not previously encountered, they are able to guide students by generalizing knowledge from familiar pieces in a way that makes instruction as valuable as instruction with familiar repertoire.