Other Health Impairment—Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Many students with ADHD now may qualify for special education services under the “Other Health Impairment” category within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA defines “other health impairment” as...
“...having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and adversely affects a child's educational performance."
[34 Code of Federal Regulations §300.8(c)(9)]
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) is a condition that can make it hard for a person to sit still, control behavior, and pay attention. These difficulties usually begin before the person is 7 years old. However, these behaviors may not be noticed until the child is older. (NICHCY, 2012)
Doctors do not know just what causes AD/HD. However, researchers who study the brain are coming closer to understanding what may cause AD/HD. They believe that some people with AD/HD do not have enough of certain chemicals (called neurotransmitters) in their brain. These chemicals help the brain control behavior. (NICHCY, 2012)
The symptom-related criteria for the three primary subtypes are adapted from DSM-IV and summarized as follows:
Children with the combined type of AD/HD have symptoms of both of the types described above. They have problems with paying attention, with hyperactivity, and with controlling their impulses.
Of course, from time to time, all children are inattentive, impulsive, and too active. With children who have AD/HD, these behaviors are the rule, not the exception. (NICHCY, 2012)
There is no quick treatment for AD/HD. However the symptoms of AD/HD can be managed. It's importnat that the child's family and teachers:
Children with AD/HD are at risk for potentially serious problems in adolescence: academic underachievement and school failure, problems in social relations, risk for antisocial behavior patterns, teen pregnancy, and adverse driving consequences.As noted above, AD/HD persists from childhood to adolescence in the vast majority of cases, although the symptom area of motor activity tends to diminish with time. Furthermore, up to two-thirds of children with AD/HD continue to experience significant symptoms in adulthood. Yet many adults with AD/HD learn coping strategies and compensate quite well. A key to good outcome is early identification and treatment. (NRC on AD/HD, 2012)
School can be hard for children with AD/HD. Success in school often means being able to pay attention and control behavior and impulse. These are the areas where children with AD/HD have trouble.
Most students with AD/HD are helped by supports or changes in the classroom (called adaptations). The following tips for teachers describe some common changes that help students with AD/HD:
P.O. Box 7557
Wilmington, DE 19803-9997
The Attention Deficit Disorder Association (ADDA) is designated as a 501 (c) 3 nonprofit organization by the Internal Revenue Service. This international organization has been in existence since 1989. The mission of ADDA is to provide information, resources and networking to adults with AD/HD and to the professionals who work with them. In doing so, ADDA generates hope, awareness, empowerment and connections worldwide in the field of AD/HD. Bringing together scientific perspectives and the human experience, the information and resources provided to individuals and families affected by AD/HD and professionals in the field focuses on diagnoses, treatments, strategies and techniques for helping adults with AD/HD lead better lives.
8181 Professional Place, Suite 150
Landover, MD 20785
CHADD is the nation’s leading non-profit organization serving individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). Through collaborative leadership, advocacy, research, education and support, CHADD provides science-based, evidence-based information about AD/HD to parents, educators, professionals, the media and the general public.
Funded through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) affects how millions of children and adults function on a daily basis. The NRC was created to meet the information needs of both professionals and the general public.
An extensive series of pages and publications devoted to ADHD, from the American Academy of Pediatrics.
An internet community resource provided by The NewIdeas.Net family of ADD/ADHD information Web sites.
This site includes free printable material and activities for kids, parents, student teachers, and teachers.
MyADHD.com was developed to make it easy for stakeholders such as healthcare professionals, families, adults with ADHD, and educators to exchange information electronically to optimize assessment and treatment of ADHD and related disorders. The site provides forms that can be electronically transmitted.
LD Online is a national educational service of public television station WETA in Washington, D.C. It is operated in association with the National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities and is made possible by generous support from Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes®. LD Online offers online services and produces video programs dedicated to improving the lives of children and adults with learning disabilities and ADHD. LD Online features hundres of helpful articles on learning disabilities and ADHD, monthly columns by noted experts in the field, a free and confidential question and answer service, active bulletin boards, and a Yellow Pages referral directory of professionals, schools, and products.
Established in 1996, Education World, Educator's Best Friend, is a resource that is a place where teachers can gather and share ideas. The site includes original content, including lesson plans, practical information for educators, information on how to integrate technology in the classroom, and articles written by education experts; web site reviews; special features and columns; and employment listings.
This Web site provides tips, links, and resources for parents and caregivers of children with ADHD.
ADHDNews.com is a community started by Brandi Valentine in 1995. It provides help to families looking for help on ADHD.
Articles, games and book reviews for children and adolescents interested in understanding mental health issues.
Created by The Nemours Foundation's Center for Children's Health Media, KidsHealth is the largest and most visited site on the Web providing doctor-approved health information about children from before birth through adolescence. KidsHealth has separate areas for kids, teens, and parents - each with its own design, age-appropriate content, and tone.
Created by Child and Youth Health, this web site allows children ages 6 to 12 years old to research health topics such as ADHD.